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ART (Duke Nukem 3D) - Just Solve the File Format Problem

ART (Duke Nukem 3D)

From Just Solve the File Format Problem
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File Format
Name ART (Duke Nukem 3D)
Ontology
Extension(s) .art

The ART format is a uncompressed archive format used by Duke Nukem 3D (a Build Engine game) to store all of the game's image data (such as textures and sprites). Each file within the archive is called a Tile. Each archive can contain a maximum of 256 tiles.

Files are typically named TILES###.ART, starting with TILES000.ART, and are loaded by the engine in sequence.

Image data within the archive are paletted and uncompressed, and can only be converted using the engine's PALETTE.DAT file (see Build Engine Palette). Whilst uncompressed, image data is stored in column-order not row-order. The 255th index in the palette is used for transparency.

Contents

File signature

Whilst the format does not contain a file signature/magic bytes, the version number (01 00 00 00) can be used in its place.

Source

The following source can be used to extract .ART files using Python. The script requires two inputs, the ART file and the corresponding PALETTE.DAT file.

from PIL import Image as Pillow
import struct
import argparse
import os

header_format = '<llll'
header_format_size = struct.calcsize(header_format)

tile_dimension_format = "<H"
tile_dimension_format_size = struct.calcsize(tile_dimension_format)

tile_attribute_format = "<i"
tile_attribute_format_size = struct.calcsize(tile_attribute_format)

palette_format = "<BBB"
palette_format_size = struct.calcsize(palette_format)

def palette_to_sequence(fileName, count=256):
	colors = [None] * count
	
	with open(fileName, 'rb') as f:
		for i in range(0, count):
			color_tuple = f.read(palette_format_size)
			r, g, b = struct.unpack(palette_format, color_tuple)
			
			# Only 6-bits are used for color information, so each byte will need to be
			# multiplied by 4
			colors[i] = [r * 4, g * 4, b * 4]
		
	return sum(colors, []) # Flatten the array


def unpack(fileName, paletteFileName):
	BASE_NAME = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(fileName))[0]
	PALETTE = palette_to_sequence(paletteFileName)

	try:
		os.mkdir(BASE_NAME)
	except:
		pass

	with open(fileName, 'rb') as f:
		[version, _, local_tile_start, local_tile_end] = struct.unpack(header_format, f.read(header_format_size))
		assert version == 1
		assert local_tile_start > 1
		assert local_tile_end > local_tile_start

		print('version:', version)
		print('local_tile_start:', local_tile_start)
		print('local_tile_end:', local_tile_end)

		tile_count = local_tile_end - local_tile_start + 1
		assert tile_count <= 256

		print('tile_count:', tile_count)

		tile_widths = []
		tile_heights = []
		tile_attributes = []

		# Read tile widths
		for _ in range(0, tile_count):
			temp = struct.unpack(tile_dimension_format, f.read(tile_dimension_format_size))
			tile_widths.append(temp[0])

		# Read tile heights
		for _ in range(0, tile_count):
			temp = struct.unpack(tile_dimension_format, f.read(tile_dimension_format_size))
			tile_heights.append(temp[0])

		# Read tile attributes
		for _ in range(0, tile_count):
			temp = struct.unpack(tile_attribute_format, f.read(tile_attribute_format_size))
			tile_attributes.append(temp[0])
		
		# Read tile image data (image data is stored in a column order, not a row order,
		# so widths and heights are flipped)
		entry_begin_offset = f.tell()
		running_length = 0

		for i in range(0, tile_count):
			w = tile_heights[i]
			h = tile_widths[i]
			length = w * h
			offset = entry_begin_offset + running_length
			running_length += length
			
			tile_number = local_tile_start + i
			tile_data = f.read(length)
			file_name = "{}_{}.png".format(tile_number, offset)

			# Transpose data
			tile_data = list(tile_data)
			tile_data = [tile_data[i:i + w] for i in range(0, len(tile_data), w)]
			tile_data = sum(map(list, zip(*tile_data)), [])

			with open(os.path.join(BASE_NAME, file_name), 'wb') as image_output:
				im = Pillow.new(mode="P", size=(h, w))
				im.putpalette(PALETTE)
				im.putdata(tile_data)
				im.save(image_output, 'png', transparency=255)


if __name__ == '__main__':
	parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
					prog = 'ART Extractor',
					description = 'Unpacks Build Engine .ART files')
	parser.add_argument('INPUT_FILE')
	parser.add_argument('PALETTE_FILE')
	args = parser.parse_args()
	
	unpack(args.INPUT_FILE, args.PALETTE_FILE)

Specification

Ken Silverman, the original author of the Build Engine, provided the following documentation of the ART format:

Documentation on Ken's .ART file format                     by Ken Silverman

   I am documenting my ART format to allow you to program your own custom
art utilites if you so desire.  I am still planning on writing the script
system.

   All art files must have xxxxx###.ART.  When loading an art file you
should keep trying to open new xxxxx###'s, incrementing the number, until
an art file is not found.


1. long artversion;

      The first 4 bytes in the art format are the version number.  The current
   current art version is now 1.  If artversion is not 1 then either it's the
   wrong art version or something is wrong.

2. long numtiles;

      Numtiles is not really used anymore.  I wouldn't trust it.  Actually
   when I originally planning art version 1 many months ago, I thought I
   would need this variable, but it turned it is was unnecessary.  To get
   the number of tiles, you should search all art files, and check the
   localtilestart and localtileend values for each file.

3. long localtilestart;

      Localtilestart is the tile number of the first tile in this art file.

4. long localtileend;

      Localtileend is the tile number of the last tile in this art file.
      Note:  Localtileend CAN be higher than the last used slot in an art
      file.

         Example:  If you chose 256 tiles per art file:
      TILES000.ART -> localtilestart = 0,   localtileend = 255
      TILES001.ART -> localtilestart = 256, localtileend = 511
      TILES002.ART -> localtilestart = 512, localtileend = 767
      TILES003.ART -> localtilestart = 768, localtileend = 1023

5. short tilesizx[localtileend-localtilestart+1];

      This is an array of shorts of all the x dimensions of the tiles
   in this art file.  If you chose 256 tiles per art file then
   [localtileend-localtilestart+1] should equal 256.

6. short tilesizy[localtileend-localtilestart+1];

      This is an array of shorts of all the y dimensions.

7. long picanm[localtileend-localtilestart+1];

      This array of longs stores a few attributes for each tile that you
   can set inside EDITART.  You probably won't be touching this array, but
   I'll document it anyway.

   Bit:  │31           24│23           16│15            8│7             0│
         ├───────────────┼───────────────┼───────────────┼───────────────┤
         │ | | | | | | | │ | | | | | | | │ | | | | | | | │ | | | | | | | │
         └───────┬───────┼───────────────┼───────────────┼───┬───────────┤
                 │ Anim. │  Signed char  │  Signed char  │   │  Animate  │
                 │ Speed │   Y-center    │   X-center    │   │   number  │
                 └───────┤    offset     │    offset     │   ├───────────┘
                         └───────────────┴───────────────┤   └──────────┐
                                                         │ Animate type:│
                                                         │ 00 - NoAnm   │
                                                         │ 01 - Oscil   │
                                                         │ 10 - AnmFd   │
                                                         │ 11 - AnmBk   │
                                                         └──────────────┘
          You probably recognize these:
       Animate speed -            EDITART key: 'A', + and - to adjust
       Signed char x&y offset -   EDITART key: '`', Arrows to adjust
       Animate number&type -      EDITART key: +/- on keypad

8. After the picanm's, the rest of the file is straight-forward rectangular
      art data.  You must go through the tilesizx and tilesizy arrays to find
      where the artwork is actually stored in this file.

      Note:  The tiles are stored in the opposite coordinate system than
         the screen memory is stored.  Example on a 4*4 file:

         Offsets:
         ┌───┬───┬───┬───┐
         │ 0 │ 4 │ 8 │12 │
         ├───┼───┼───┼───┤
         │ 1 │ 5 │ 9 │13 │
         ├───┼───┼───┼───┤
         │ 2 │ 6 │10 │14 │
         ├───┼───┼───┼───┤
         │ 3 │ 7 │11 │15 │
         └───┴───┴───┴───┘

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   If you wish to display the artwork, you will also need to load your
palette.  To load the palette, simply read the first 768 bytes of your
palette.dat and write it directly to the video card - like this:

   Example:
      long i, fil;

      fil = open("palette.dat",O_BINARY|O_RDWR,S_IREAD);
      read(fil,&palette[0],768);
      close(fil);

      outp(0x3c8,0);
      for(i=0;i<768;i++)
         outp(0x3c9,palette[i]);

See also

Sample files

  • Boot Disc Issue 01 → CONTENT/DEMOS/GAMES/DUKE3D/DUKE3D.GRP (GRP format) → TILES*.ART (and PALETTE.DAT)
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